Paperwork is, and always has been a necessary and essential aspect of ship operation. Indeed, the Barcelona Maritime Code of 1258 required ships carry clerks specifically for this purpose releasing the master to concentrate on his primary duty, safely navigating the vessel.
The First International Conference on Ice Technology (ITC 86) was held on the campus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 10-12 this year. The conference was preceded and followed by Tutorials on June 9 and June 13. On the morning of June 9, the session was presented by Dr.